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in proportion than those imported from Great Britain, and they are even said to be more durable.

An association of the tradesmen and manufac. turers of the town of Boston in Massachusetts, has lately been formed, consisting of a representative from each branch. In this body the whole manufacturing interest of the town is combined ; and by a circular letter they have strongly recommended the same mode of procedure to their brethren in the several seaports in the union. In this state are manufactured pot and pearl ashes, linseed oil, bar and cast iron, cannon, cordage, woollen and cotton cloth, hosiery, hats, tools and instruments of husbandry, wool cards, clocks, cutlery, musquets, cabinet work, &c. The town of Lynn is particularly famous for the manufacture of women's silk and stuff shoes ; of which' a hundred and seventy thousand pair are annually made, and exported to various parts of the Unita ed States.

In Connecticut, the farmers and their families are mostly clothed in decent homespun cloth. Their linens and woollens are manufactured in the family way; and although they are generally of a coarser kind, they are of a stronger texture and more durable than those imported from Europe.

A woollen manufactory has been established in Hartford, with a capital of four thousand dollars, and as the legislature of the state have already encouraged it, it bids fair to grow into importance. At New Haven there is a linen manufactory, which seems tolerably fiourishing; and one for cotton is about to be established. In East Hartford are a glass work, a snuff and powder mill, and an iron work and slitting mill. Iron works are established at Salisbury, Norwich, and other parts of the state ; and at Stafford is a fur. nace, at which is made large quantities of hollow ware and other ironmongery sufficient to supply the whole state. Paper is manufactured at Norm wich, Hartford, and New Haven ; and nails of every size are made in almost every town and village in Connecticut; so that considerable quantities can be exported to the neighbouring states, and at a better rate than they can be had from Europe. Oil-mills of a new and ingenious construction have been erected in several parts of the state.

It appears from experiments made formerly in this state, that a bushel of sun-flower seed yield a gallon of oil, and that an acre of ground planted with the seed at three feet apart, will yield be. tween forty and fifty bushels. This oil is as mild as sweet oil, and is equally agreeable with sallads, and as a medicine. It


likewise be used with advantage in ointments, paints, and varnishes. This oil is pressed from the seed in the same manner that cold drawn linseed oil is obtained from flax seed, and with as little trouble. The seed is easily raised, and grows in land of mode. rate fertility

Among many other articles manufactured in New York, are the following :

-wheel carriages of all kinds, loaf sugar, beer, sadlery, cabinet. work, cutlery, potters-ware, clocks and watches, all kinds of musical and mathematical instruments, ships, and every thing necessary for their equipment. A glass-work and several iron works have been established in several parts of the country, but they have not hitherto been produce tire, owing solely to the want of workmen, and

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the high price of labour ; for the internal re-
sources and advantages for these manufactories,
such as ore, wood, water, hearth-stune, and pro-
per situations for forges, bloomeries, and all kinds
of water-works, are immense. There are seve.
ral paper-mills in this state, which are worked to
considerable advantage.
, At Trenton-and Newark in New Jersey are
several valuable tan-yards, where large quantities
of excellent leather are made and exported to the
neighbouring markets. Paper mills and nail ma-
nufactories are erected, and worked to great ad,
i vantage in many parts of the state. But the iron
manufactories in Gloucester, Burlington, Morris,
and other counties, constitute the greatest source
of wealth to the inhabitants. The mountains in
the county of Morris give rise to a number of
streams, necessary and convenient for these
works; and at the same time furnish a copious
supply of wood and ore of a superior quality. In
this county are no less than seven rich: iron
mines, from which might be taken ore sufficient
to supply the United States : and to work it into
iron there are two furnaces, two rolling and slit-
ting mills, and about thirty forges, containing
from two to four fires each. In the whole state of
New Jersey, it is supposed there is annually made
twelve hundred tons of bar iron, an equal weight
of pigs, and eighty tons of nail rods, exclusive of
hollow ware, and various other castings, of which
great quantities are manufactured.

In the middle and upper parts of South Carolina, the people are obliged to manufacture their own cotton and woollen cloths, and most of their implements of husbandry; but in the lower country the inhabitants depend almost entirely on

their merchants for these articles. Indeed it appears that manufactures and agriculture in this and the two adjoining states are yet in the first stages of improvement.

The manufactures of Georgia may be said to be very inconsiderable, if we except indigo, silk, and sago, and even these, of late years, have been but little attended to. The people in the lower part of the state manufacture none of their own clothing, for themselves or their negroes. For almost every artiele of wearing apparel as well as for instruments of husbandry, they depend on their merchants, who import them from Great Britain and the northern states. In the upper part of the country, however, the inhabitants manufacture the chief part of their clothing, from cotton and from flax.


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HE islands which lie about the coast of the vast continent of America are almost innumerable, many of them uninhabited, or in other respects too inconsiderable to deserve particular notice. Those of the greatest importance are that vast number called the Antilles, which lie at the en.' trance of the gulf of Mexico, extending from the coast of Florida to that of New Andalusia in Terra Firma. Some call them the Caribbees, from the first inhabitants; but this is a denomination that most geographers confine to the Leeward Islands. Cuba, Hispaniola, Porto Rico, and Jamaica, are called the Great Antilles. The most considerable of the Little Antilles are Barbadoes, St. Christopher's, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Anguilla, Barbuda, Tobago, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Granada, and the Granadillos; Guadaloupe, Martinico, Marigalante and Santa Cruz, St. Eustatia, Saba, Curassow, Trinadad and Margarita.

Besides these, there are the islands that lie to the south of the straits of Magellan, which are commonly distinguished by the name of Terra del Fuego, or the Land of Fire; being thus called from the fires and smoke perceived by the first discoverers of them, rising from a volcano in the largest island, the flame of which, though not seen in the day-time, is visible at a vast distance in the night, and sometimes throws up great quantities

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