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take care thou art not led aside from thy calling; 'go, 1 we learn that a dunghill in a public place exposed the and return; think on what I have done to thee."" owner to the payment of whatever damage it might
Sir John Malcolm says, “ Among the Persians, the occasion; and any person might remove it as a nuisance. principal khalifas or teachers consider the sacred mantle Dung might not during the seventh year be transported as the symbol of their spiritual power. Though the to the neighbourhood of the fields intended to be khirke, or mantle, was in general only transferred to a | manured. Under certain restrictions it was, however, beloved pupil, at the death of his master, some superior permitted to fold cattle for the sake of their manure, saints were deemed possessed of a power, even while | upon the lands that required it in the Sabbatic year, and living, to invest others with the sacred and mysterious it is from this only we learn that the practice existed garment. When the khalifa or teacher of the souffees among the Jews, who would seem more generally to dies, he bequeaths his patched garment, which is all his have folded their sheep within walled inclosures, (John worldly wealth, to the disciple whom he esteems the 10. 1-5,) the occasional clearance of which must have most worthy to become his successor, and the moment afforded a principal supply of manure. It would seem the latter puts on the holy mantle he is vested with the that gardens, except a few old rose-gardens, were not power of his predecessor.”
allowed within the walls of Jerusalem, on account of the manure they would have required; and “because of the
stench," as the Mishnah states, this produced, as well as MANTLES, nidoyo maataphoth. (Isai. 3. 22.) because of that arising from the weeds thrown out from Roberts considers “the mantles” in this passage, in gardens. From another passage of the Talmud we are which many articles of female dress are mentioned, to informed that the surplus blood of the sacrifices offered refer to a loose robe which is gracefully crossed on the in the Temple, that is to say, the blood which was poured bosom. The women of Western Asia, and of Egypt, out at the foot of the altar, after the altar had been duly wear over the gown a sort of long mantle or pelisse, sprinkled, was conducted by a subterraneous channel to made of cloth, silk, or velvet; this, it is conjectured, the outside of the city, and was sold to the gardeners as may be some such article as the text denotes. See manure for their gardens; by which we are to underCLOTHES; DRESS.
stand that the gardeners were allowed to use it on paying
the price of a trespass offering, without which it could MANURES. Although the Scriptures do not not be appropriated to any common use after having furnish us with many details respecting the state of been dedicated at the altar. agriculture in Judæa, yet we may collect from various 1 In ancient Egypt, Sir John Gardner Wilkinson tells passages many interesting hints that will enable us to us that “ Corn, and those productions which did not form some idea of the high state of its cultivation. It stand in need of constant artificial irrigation, were sown is not probable that the Hebrews derived their know- in the open field, as in other countries; but for indigo, ledge of manures from Egypt; but they doubtless adopted esculent vegetables, and herbs which required to be freand preserved the customs which existed among the pre quently watered, the fields were portioned out into vious inhabitants of the country. In the parable of the square beds like our salt pans, surrounded by a raised fig-tree which had for three years been barren, and border of earth to keep in the water, which was introwhich the proprietor therefore doomed to be cut down, duced by channels from the shadoof, or poured in with the gardener is represented as praying for delay, until buckets. Sometimes, as we are informed by Pliny, they he should “ dig about it and dung it.” (Luke 13. 7.) used a dressing of nitrous soil, which was spread over To explain this, Lightfoot quotes the following from the surface; a custom continued to the present day: but the Talmud: “ They lay dung to moisten and enrich the this was confined to certain crops, and principally to soil; dig about the roots of trees; pluck up the suckers; those reared late in the year; the fertilizing properties of take off the leaves; sprinkle ashes; and smoke under the alluvial deposit answering all the purposes of the the trees to kill vermin.” In addition to the various richest manure. Its peculiar quality is not merely indimodes of irrigation, the soil was likewise enriched by cated by its effects, but by the appearance it presents; means of ashes; to which were added the straw an and so tenacious and siliceous is its structure, that when teben, stubble wp kash, husks, or chaff, río mols, toge left upon the rock, and dried by the sun, it resembles ther with the brambles and grass that overspread the pottery, from its brittleness and consistence. Its compoland during the Sabbatical year; all being reduced by nent parts, according to the analysis given by Regnault, fire and used as manure. (Prov. 24. 31; Isai. 7. 23; | in the Memoires sur l'Egypte, are, 32. 13.) The burning over the surface of the land had
11 Water also another good effect, that of destroying the seeds of
9 Carbon noxious herbs. Dunghills are mentioned in 1 Samuel 2.8;
6 Oxide of iron Ezra 6. 11; Daniel 2. 5; 3. 29, and one of the gates at
4 Carbonate of magnesia Jerusalem was called the Dung-gate, from dung being
18 Carbonate of lime carried out there. (Nehem. 2. 13.) That the soil was
48 Alumen manured with dung, we learn from 2Kings 9. 37; Psalm 83. 10; Jeremiah 8. 2; 9. 22; 16. 4; 25. 33; Luke 14.
100 35. The Israelites had comparatively few horses and The quantity of silica and alumen varying according to few swine, two sources of excellent strong manure. the places whence the mud is taken, which frequently Their animals consisted chiefly of oxen, camels, asses, contains a great admixture of sand near the banks, and sheep, and goats. The dung of the cow and camel was a larger proportion of argillaceous matter at a distance used to a considerable extent for fuel, and the dung of from the river. the sacrifices was directed to be burned-circumstances | “Besides the admixture of nitrous earth, the Egypcalculated to diminish the supply. That salt was used tians made use of other kinds of dressing for certain for manure we learn from Matthew 5. 13, and Luke produce; and in those places where the vine was cultivated 14. 34,35, and it would appear that salt was sometimes on alluvial soil, we may conclude they found the addition sown by itself on the land, at others mixed in the dung- of gravel beneficial to that valuable plant,-a secret hill to promote putrefaction, and contribute its saline readily learnt from its thriving condition, and the supeparticles to the mass. From the Mishnah Bava Kama rior quality of the grape in strong soils; and some pro
duce was improved by a mixture of sand. Nor were | Professor Robinson says, “ Leaving Suez, we took our they neglectful of the advantages offered by the edge of course around the head of the gulf, the better to observe the desert for the growth of certain plants, which, being the features of the country. We pitched our tent at composed of clay and sand, was peculiarly adapted to night over against Suez, but somewhat lower down, not such as required a light soil; and the cultivation of this far from the place where the Israelites probably came additional tract, which only stood in need of proper irri- out upon the eastern shore. Here, at our evening devogation to become highly productive, had the advantage tions, and near the spot where it was composed and first of increasing considerably the extent of the arable land sung, we read and felt in its full force the magnificent of Egypt." See AGRICULTURE; HUSBANDRY.
triumphal song of Moses: “The Lord hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider he hath thrown into
the sea! A desert plain extends along the eastern shore MAON, jiya Sept. Mawy, was a city in the tribe
of the gulf for nearly fifty miles, bounded on the east by of Judah not far from Mount Carmel. (Josh. 15. 55;
a range of hills or mountains twelve or fifteen miles 1Sam. 25. 2.) It was the residence of Nabal, and near
from the coast. At three hours and a half from the to it was a wilderness in which David for a season
northern end are the brackish Fountains of Moses (Ayûn made his abode. Gesenius says, “there is still a place | Mûsa); and then for eighteen hours, or about forty-five in these regions called Mâân," which has been confirmed
miles further, no water is found. This is probably the by the recent researches of Dr. Robinson.
desert of Shur or Ethan, in which the Israelites jourMAONITES, a people mentioned in Judges 10.
neyed for three days without water. Then occurs the 11,12 with the Amalekites, Sidonians, Philistines, and
bitter fountain Hawara, corresponding to the ancient others, as having oppressed the Israelites. They are
Marah; and two hours further is the Wady Ghŭrŭndel, probably the same with the Disipyo Mihaammonim,
probably Elim, where are still water and a few palmwhich our version renders “ other besides the Ammo
trees. From opposite this point a ridge of chalky mounnites," who came against Jehoshaphat, (2Chron. 20. 1,)
tains, Jebel Hămmâm, runs along the sea for some and with the opiya Mehunim, (2Chron. 26. 7,) who
distance, and cuts off all passage along the shore. The were subdued by King Uzziah. In this last passage
Israelites must therefore of necessity have passed by the they are mentioned with the Arabians.
present road inside of these mountains, to the head of Wady Tayibed, and so down this wady to the gulf,
where they next encamped by the Red Sea.' Hence MARAH, 7 (Exod. 15. 23; Numb. 33. 8,) | they would seem to have followed the lower road to was a place in the desert of Arabia, so called from the Mount Sinai, through the Wadys Mukatteb and Feirân; bitterness of its waters. When the Israelites came out but the stations are mentioned so indefinitely, that no of Egypt, on their arrival in the wilderness of Etham, hope remains of their ever being identified." they found the water so bitter that neither themselves The waters of Marah were sweetened by the branch nor their cattle could drink it; on which account they of a tree, which Moses by Divine direction cast into gave to this encampment the name of Marah, or Bitter them, perhaps from some natural quality in the tree; ness. Most travellers assert that there are several bitter for Forskal, who travelled with Niebuhr as botanist, fountains not far from the Red Sea; and Dr. Shaw fixes mentions a plant which possesses such a quality, and these waters at Corondel, a place where there is a small which was known in the East Indies; and this supporill, which, unless when diluted by dews and rain, still sition is favoured by the Sacred Record: “ The Lord continues to be brackish. A later traveller, Mr. Carne, showed him a tree, which when he had cast into the who visited this region a century after Dr. Shaw, in waters, the waters were made sweet." See Alvah. describing these waters, observes, “The Pool of Marah Roberts observes, “This water which was bitter or is of a circular form, about sixty feet round; it gushes brackish, (Dr. Shaw says the latter,) was thus made forth from a rock at the foot of a barren mountain, and sweet by the casting in of the tree. Some suppose it one or two palm-trees spread their shade over it. This was a bitter wood, such as quassia, which corrected the pool, the only one found for a great distance around, in water. Water is often brackish in the neighbourhood spite of its clear and tempting appearance is brackish of salt pans or the sea, and the natives in India correct and bitter to the taste, offering one of the greatest dis- it by throwing in it the wood called perru nelli (Phyappointments to the weary traveller, whose thirst indeed | lanthus emblica). Should the water be very bad, they may be quenched, though the hope of a sweet and deli- line the well with planks cut out of this tree. In cious draught is baffled.” From Ain Mousa (the Wells swampy grounds, or when there has not been rain for a of Moses) near that part of the sea where Niebuhr sup long time, the water is often muddy and very unwholeposes that the passage was made, Burckhardt travelled some. But Providence has again been bountiful by in fifteen hours and a quarter, (a distance sufficiently giving to the people the teatta marum (Strychnos great to occupy a body of people like the Israelites potatorum). All who live in the neighbourhood of such three days,) to a well called Howara, the water of which water, or who have to travel where it is, always carry a is so bitter, that men cannot drink it; and even camels, snpply of the nuts of this tree. They grind one or two if not very thirsty, refuse to taste it.
of them on the side of an earthen vessel; the water is “The name,” Lord Lindsay observes, “in the form of then poured in, and the impurities soon subside." Amarah, is now borne by the barren bed of a winter torrent, a little beyond which is still found a well,
MARANATHA. See ANATHEMA; EXCOMMUNIbearing the name of Howara, whose bitter waters answer to this description. Camels will drink it; but even the
CATION. thirsty Arabs never drink of it themselves; and it is the only water on the shore of the Red Sea which they MARBLE, shish. (1 Chron. 29. 2; Esth. 1. 6; cannot drink. This, when first taken into the mouth, Cantic. 5. 15.) The “ white marble" of Esther 1. 6 is seems insipid rather than bitter; but when held in the rendered in the Septuagint doos IIapiyos, Parian mouth a few seconds, it becomes extremely nauseous. stone. This well rises within an elevated mound surrounded by Primary limestone, or marble, is a simple rock, consand hills, and two small date-trees grow near it.” sisting of carbonate of lime. In its pure state, it is
encampment stere that there af Dr. Shaw fixes which was favoured gave to Most travellem the Red Sea; here there is a shotill sitiomed hin a
granular, crystalline, and of a colour varying from pure | MARESHA, 70X70 (Josh. 15. 44,) was a fenced white to gray and yellowish. It is sometimes found in city in the plain of the tribe of Judah, near which Asa irregular masses, or beds, or large nodules, with little or routed the Ethiopians. (2Chron. 14. 9.) Jerome and no appearance of stratification; more generally, how Eusebius call it Morasthi, and state that it was two ever, it is regularly stratified, and these strata alternate miles from Eleutheropolis. During the Captivity, and with other rocks, and are of all varieties of thickness. for some time after, it was possessed by the Idumæans, The texture varies from a highly crystalline, of a larger but the victories of the Asamonean princes restored it or finer grain, to a compact and even earthy. Other to Judæa. It afterwards fell into ruin, and was repaired substances are sometimes combined with the simple by Gabinius, the Roman president of Syria (B.C. 57-54), rock, which modify its appearance and texture, such as but its site is now uncertain. mica, quartz, hornblende. It is never found in veins, except in the form of regular crystals, and, in this
I MARINER, no mellach. (Ezek. 27. 9; Jonah respect, it exactly resembles quartz. There is consider
| 1. 5.) From Ezekiel 27. 8-11, we learn that the able difficulty in drawing the line of distinction between
Tyrians themselves were entirely devoted to commerce; the primary and secondary limestones, where the latter
while the neighbouring Phænician towns furnished do not happen to contain organic remains. In the pri
them with mariners and shipwrights. mary limestone, strictly speaking, no organic remains
In the passage in the Book of Jonah, (1.5,) it is said, have yet been discovered. With one or two exceptions,
“ Then the mariners were afraid, and cried every man and as a general rule, it may be said, they, like the pri
unto his god, and cast forth the wares that were in the mary schists, are almost destitute of organic bodies. Like the strata which it accompanies, beds of limestone
ship into the sea, to lighten it of them; but Jonah was are often bent and contorted, evidently from disturbance
gone down into the sides of the ship; and he lay and
was fast asleep.” below. The colours vary from a pure white, which con
Roberts says, “ There never was a more natural destitutes the statuary marble, to various shades of gray,
scription of the conduct of a heathen crew in a storm brown, black, and green. These tints are derived from a
than this. No sooner does danger come, than one carbonaceous matter or oxide of iron, or an admixture of
begins to beat his head, and cry aloud, Siva, Siva; anoother minerals.
ther piteously shrieks, and beats his breast, and says, The variety of stones mentioned in Esther 1. 6, as
Vishnoo; and a third strikes his thigh, and shouts with forming the pavement of the palace at Shushan, refers
all his might, Varuna. Thus do they cry to their gods,' most probably to marble of different colours. The $7)
instead of doing their duty. More than once have I bahat; Sept. ouapayoutns, “red marble," was, Gesenius thinks, the verde-antico, or half porphyry of
been in these circumstances, and never can I forget the Egypt. The 77 dar; Sept. Tivvivos Xoos, pearl stone,
horror and helplessness of these poor idolaters. In a
storm, the heathen mariners always conclude that there or “ blue marble,” is probably mother-of-pearl. Gesenius
is some one on board who has committed a great crime, remarks, there is a sort of alabaster called perlenmutter
and they begin to inquire, “Who is the sinner?' Some stein, mother-of-pearl stone. Bochart, however, gives
time ago, a number of native vessels left the roads of examples from descriptions of Asiatic luxury where
Negapatam, at the same hour, for Point Pedro, in the pearls are said to have been used for inlaying the floor.
island of Ceylon; they had not been long at sea before The DID sochereth; Sept. Iapivos Xoos, is like
it was perceived that one of them could not make any wise mentioned, as “black marble,” with the other kinds
way; she rolled and pitched, and veered about in every of marble for forming a pavement. Gesenius says, per
direction; but the other vessels went on beautifully haps tortoise-shell. Others, from the rendering of the
before the wind. The captain and his crew began to Syriac, think it refers to black marble.
look at the passengers, and at last fixed their eyes upon The pavement in the palace of Ahasuerus was no
a poor woman, who was crouched in a corner of the doubt of mosaic work, the floors of the apartments
hold. “Let down the canoe,' was the order, and take being laid with painted tiles, or slabs of marble; in the
this woman ashore ;' in vain she remonstrated, she was same way as Dr. Russell describes the houses of the
compelled to enter, and was soon landed on the beach. wealthy in modern times. In these a portion of the
After this, as they thought, the vessel sailed as well as pavement of the courts is of mosaic, and it is usually that
any other. When the storm rages, they make vows to part which lies between the fountain and the arched
their gods; one will go on a pilgrimage to some holy alcove on the south side that is thus beautified. See
place, another will perform a penance, and a third will HOUSE.
make a valuable present to his favourite temple. The MARCH. The word Tyy tsiadah, which occurs
offering of a sacrifice is generally done when they get in Psalm 68. 7, “ When thou didst march through the
safe to shore; but I have been on board when they have
offered cocoa-nuts and other articles with the greatest wilderness," is also applied to a short chain mentioned
earnestness. To interfere with them is not always pruin Isaiah 3. 20, with which the Oriental women fasten
dent; because were it not from the hope they have from the bracelets of one foot to the other in order to make
such offerings, they would cease to work the vessel.” short gentle steps.
By the prophet Jeremiah another word is used: in ch. 46. 22 it is said, “The voice thereof shall go like a MARK, Mapkos, Marcus, or John Mark, the serpent, they shall march with an army.” Here the writer of the second Gospel, was the nephew of BarHebrew word is 7700 halach, to go, walk, proceed. nabas. This Evangelist was not an Apostle or comThat the soldiers in the ancient Egyptian and Hebrew panion of our Lord during his ministry, though Epiphaarmies marched to the sound of music, especially to that nius and several other Fathers affirm that he was one of of the trumpet, is evident from the paintings on the the seventy disciples. All that we learn from the New monuments of the country of the former. See ARMS, Testament concerning him is, that he was “sister's son ARMOUR, ARMY.
to Barnabas,” (Col. 4. 10;) and the son of Mary, a MARCUS. See Mark.
pious woman of Jerusalem, at whose house the Apostles and first Christians often assembled. (Acts 12. 12.) His Hebrew name was John, and Michaëlis thinks that
MARK-MARK, GOSPEL OF ST.
accoPaul, (22 Mark sentolos
he adopted the surname of Mark when he left Judæa to Some authorities have asserted that St. Peter revised and preach the Gospel in foreign countries,-a practice not approved this Gospel, and others have not scrupled to unusual among the Jews of that age, who frequently call it “ The Gospel according to St. Peter;" by which assumed a name more familiar to the nations which they title they did not mean to question St. Mark's right to visited, than by that by which they had been distin be considered as the author of this Gospel, but merely guished in their own country. From St. Peter styling to give it the sanction of St. Peter's name. The followhim his son, (1Peter 5. 13,) this Evangelist is supposed to ing passage in Eusebius appears to contain so probable have been converted by St. Peter; after whose deliver an account of the occasion of writing this Gospel that ance he went from Jerusalem with Paul and Barnabas, we think it right to transcribe it:-“The lustre of piety and soon after accompanied them to other countries, so enlightened Peter's hearers at Rome, that they were (Acts 13. 5;) but declining to attend them through not contented with the bare hearing and unwritten their whole progress, he returned to Jerusalem, and kept instruction of his divine preaching, but they earnestly up an intercourse with St. Peter and the other Apostles. requested St. Mark, whose Gospel we have, being an Afterwards, however, when Paul and Barnabas settled attendant upon St. Peter, to leave with them a written at Antioch on the termination of their journey, we find account of the instructions which had been delivered to Mark with them now disposed to accompany them in them by word of mouth; nor did they desist till they their future journeys. At this time he went with Bar- | had prevailed upon him; and thus they were the cause nabas to Cyprus, (Acts 15. 37-39,) and subsequently of the writing of that Gospel, which is called 'according accompanied Timothy to Rome, at the express desire of | to St. Mark; and they say that the Apostle being inSt. Paul, (2Tim. 4. 11,) during his confinement in that formed of what was done, by the revelation of the Holy city, whence Mark sent his salutations to Philemon (24) Ghost, was pleased with the zeal of the men, and authoand to the church at Colosse. (Col. 4. 10.) From Rome rized the writing to be introduced into the churches. he probably went into Asia, where he found St. Peter, Clement gives this account in the sixth book of his with whom he returned to that city, in which he is sup Institutions; and Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, bears posed to have written and published his Gospel. From testimony to it.” Jerome also says, that St. Mark wrote Eusebius, Epiphanius, and Jerome, we learn that Mark, a short Gespel from what he had heard from St. Peter, after he had written his Gospel, went to Egypt; and at the request of the brethren at Rome, which, when having planted a church at Alexandria, Jerome states St. Peter knew, he approved and published it in the that he died and was buried there in the eighth year of Church, commanding the reading of it by his own the reign of Nero. Baronius, Cave, Wetstein, and authority. other writers affirm that St. Mark suffered martyrdom ; Though the testimony to the genuineness and authenbut this is not mentioned by Eusebius or any other ticity of the Gospel of St. Mark is so satisfactory, yet ancient writer, and is contrary to the statement of some critics have thought, from their absence from cerJerome, which seems to imply that he died a natural tain manuscripts, that the last twelve verses of the sixdeath.
teenth chapter, which give a brief account of Our Lord's
appearance to Mary Magdalene and his disciples after MARK, GOSPEL OF ST. This book, the second his resurrection, his charge to his Apostles, and his ascenof the New Testament, has come down to us with some sion into heaven, were not written by the Evangelist. variety of title. Thus it is entitled in the Vatican The question may be thus briefly stated: Gregory, Manuscript Kata Mapkov, “ According to Mark;” in bishop of Nyssa, in Cappadocia, has said in his second the Alexandrian Manuscript, the Codex Bezæ, the discourse on the resurrection, that this Gospel terminates, Codex Regius 62, and some other editions, it is styled in “the most exact manuscripts," with the words edoTo kata Mapkov Evayyelcov, “The Gospel according I BouvTo yap," for they were afraid," with which the to Mark;" and in some manuscripts and editions, To eighth verse of the chapter concludes, and Jerome has kata Mapkov årylov Evayyelcov, “ The Holy Gospel observed that few of the Greek manuscripts which he according to Mark,” or, as in the authorized English had seen contained these verses. But the very concise version, “ The Gospel according to St. Mark.” In the affirmation of Jerome is greatly restricted by what he Syriac version, in Bishop Walton's Polyglott, it is had himself said of a various reading in the fourteenth entitled, “The Gospel of the Evangelist Mark;" in the verse, that it is found in some copies, and especially in Arabic version, “The Gospel of St. Mark the Apostle, Greek manuscripts. It is evident, therefore, that in the which he wrote in the Roman (tongue), by the inspira former passage he has exaggerated, which is no unusual tion of the Spirit of Holiness;" and in the Persian ver occurrence with this writer. With regard to the assersion, “The beginning of the Gospel of Mark, which tion of Gregory, it is difficult, if not impossible, to was written at Rome in the Latin tongue."
determine what he intended by “the most exact manuThat St. Mark was the author of the Gospel that scripts." Perhaps he merely meant manuscripts more bears his name is confirmed by the unanimous testimony correctly written, but this merit alone would add nothing of ancient historians, particularly Papias, by several to their authority; nor can we now ascertain the recenwriters of the first century consulted by Eusebius, by sion to which they belonged. We must, therefore, exaJustin Martyr, Tatian, Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, mine the evidences which actually exist. The verses Tertullian, Ammonius, Origen, and by all the Fathers of in question are certainly wanting in the Vatican the third and following centuries. Though not cited by manuscripts; and in numbers 137 and 138 of Griesname, this Gospel appears to be alluded to by Clement bach's notation, they are marked with an asterisk, as of Rome in the first century; but the testimony of doubtful; they are also wanting in the canons of Euantiquity is not equally uniform respecting the order in sebius; but on the other hand, their authenticity is which it should be placed. Clement of Alexandria attested by authorities of the greatest importance. These affirms that the Gospels containing the genealogies were verses are extant in the Codex Alexandrinus; the most first written; according to this account, Mark wrote considerable portion of the disputed passage, (that is, the after Luke; but Papias, on the information of John the first seven verses,) is in the Codex Bezæ, à prima manu, Presbyter, a disciple of Jesus, and a companion of the but the remainder has been added by a later hand, and Apostles, expressly states that it was the second in order; they are extant in the Greek commentaries of Theophywhich is also supported by Irenæus and other writers. lact. The whole twelve verses are likewise found in the
the tullian, Ammatian, Irenaeusonsulted barn by seve
Peschito (or Old Syriac) and Arabic versions, and in forty pages, or five quaternions of St. Mark's Gospel; those manuscripts of the Vulgate Latin version which the two last quaternions, or sixteen pages, are preserved are not mutilated at the end of the second Gospel; and at Prague, where they were printed by M. Dobrowsky, they are cited by Augustine, Ambrose, and Leo, bishop under the title of Fragmentum Pragense Evangelii S. of Rome, (surnamed the Great,) who followed this ver- | Marci vulgo autographi, 1778, in 4to. Simplicity and sion. But what is of most importance is, that the conciseness appear to be the characteristics of St. Mark's manner in which so ancient a writer as Irenæus in the Gospel, which, considering the copiousness and majesty second century refers to this Gospel, renders it highly of its subject, the variety of great actions it relates, and probable that the whole passage was read in all the the surprising circumstances that attended them, togecopies known to him. His words are:-“But at the ther with the numerous and important doctrines and end of the Gospel Mark says, 'And when the Lord Jesus precepts which it contains, is the shortest and clearest after he had spoken to them was received up into heaven, of any history ever given to the world. and sat on the right hand of God.'”
Different dates have been assigned to this Gospel; Hippolytus, who wrote in the early part of the third but from an almost unanimous concurrence of opinion, century, also bears testimony in favour of the disputed that it was written while St. Mark was with St. Peter fragment, in the beginning of his book IIepi Xapiopa at Rome, and not finding any ancient authority for supTWV. There is likewise not a single manuscript contain posing that St. Peter was in that city until A.D. 61, we ing the above verse, which has not also the whole passage are inclined to place the publication of this Gospel about from the eighth to the end; nor is there a single manu A.D. 65. St. Mark having written this Gospel for the script in which this verse is wanting, that does not also use of the Christians at Rome, which was at that time want the whole. No authority of equal antiquity has the great metropolis and common centre of all civilized yet been produced on the other side. It has been con nations, we accordingly find it free from peculiarities, jectured that the difficulty of reconciling St. Mark's and equally accommodated to every description of peraccount of Our Lord's appearances after his resurrection sons. Quotations from the ancient prophets, and alluwith those of the other Evangelists, has emboldened sions to Jewish customs, are, as much as possible, some transcribers to omit them. The plausibility of avoided; and such explanations are added as might be this conjecture renders it highly probable; to which we necessary for Gentile readers at Rome; thus, when may subjoin, that the abruptness of the conclusion of this Jordan is first mentioned in this Gospel, the word history, without the words in question, and the want of “river” is prefixed; (1. 5;) the Oriental word “corban" anything like a reason for adding them if they had not is said to mean a gift, (7. 11;) “the preparation” is said been there originally, afford a strong collateral proof of to be the day before the Sabbath, (15. 42;) and “ defiled their authenticity. Dr. Campbell remarks, “Tran bands” are said to mean unwashed hands, (7.2;) and scribers presume to add and alter in order to remove con the superstition of the Jews upon that subject is stated tradictions, but not in order to make them. The con | more at large than it would have been by a person clusion, therefore, is, that the disputed fragment is an writing at Jerusalem. Some learned men, from a colintegral part of the Gospel of St. Mark, and consequently lation of St. Matthew's and St. Mark's Gospels, have is genuine."
pointed out the use of the same words and expressions That the original language of this Gospel was Greek, in so many instances, that it has been supposed St. is attested by the unanimous voice of antiquity; nor was | Mark wrote with St. Matthew's Gospel before him; but this point ever disputed until the Cardinals Baronius and the similarity is not strong enough to warrant such a Bellarmine, and after them, the Jesuit Inchofer, anxious | conclusion, and seems no greater than might have arisen to exalt the language in which the Latin Vulgate version from other causes. St. Peter would naturally recite, in was executed, affirmed that St. Mark wrote in Latin. his preaching, the same events and discourses which St. This assertion, however, not only contradicts historical Matthew recorded in his Gospel; and the same circumevidence, but is in itself almost incredible; for, as the stances might be mentioned in the same manner by men Latin church, from the very earliest ages of Christianity, who sought not after “excellency of speech," but whose was in a very flourishing state, and as the Latin language minds retained the remembrance of facts or converwas diffused over the whole Roman empire, the Latin sations which strongly impressed them, even without original of St. Mark's Gospel, if it had ever existed, taking into consideration the idea of supernatural guidcould not have been neglected in such a manner as that | ance. St. Mark's imperfect description of Christ's transno copy of it should descend to posterity. The only actions with the Apostles after his resurrection, affords semblance of testimony that has been produced in sup strong proof that he was wacquainted with the contents port of this opinion, is the subscription annexed to the of St. Matthew's Gospel. The latter Evangelist has old Syriac version, that St. Mark wrote in the Romish, given us a very circumstantial description of Christ's that is, in the Latin language, and that in the Philoxe conversation with his Apostles on a mountain in Galilee, nian version, which explains Romish by “Frankish." yet the former, though he had before related Christ's But subscriptions of this kind are of no authority what promise that he would go before them into Galilee, has, ever; for the authors of them are unknown, and some in the last chapter of his Gospel, no account whatever of of them contain the most glaring errors. Besides, as Christ's appearance in Galilee. Now, if he had read St. the Syriac version was made in the East, and taken Matthew's Gospel, this important event could not have immediately from the Greek, no appeal can be made to been unknown to him, and consequently he would not a Syriac subscription in regard to the language in have neglected to record it. Michaëlis observes that “ If which St. Mark wrote at Rome. The advocates for the St. Mark had had St. Matthew's Gospel before him, he Latin original of this Gospel have appealed to a Latin would have avoided every appearance of contradiction to manuscript, pretended to be the autograph of the Evan- the accounts given by an Apostle and an eye-witness. gelist himself, and said to be preserved in the library of His account of the call of Levi, under the very same St. Mark, at Venice; but this is now proved to be a circumstance as St. Matthew mentions his own call, is at mere fable: for the Venetian manuscript formerly made least a variation from St. Matthew's description; and part of the Latin manuscript preserved at Friuli, most this very variation would have been avoided, if St. Mark of which was printed by Blanchini, in his Evangeliarum had had access to St. Matthew's Gospel. The same may Quadruplex. The Venice manuscript contained the first | be observed of Mark 10. 46, where only one blind man