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The Lydians colonized Tuscany; the Rhodians founded Naples, and some cities in Iberia ; while the Phocians sent a colony to Marseilles. This settlement was highly important for the harmony, which, for so many ages, it preserved ; and for the benefits which resulted to the country, in which it was established :-Marseilles being the Athens, Oxford, and Cambridge, for the youths of Gaul, and no inconsiderable portion of Spain, Germany, and Britain. It is curious to remark, however, that though Marseilles was eminent for so many ages, not one author, residing within its walls, has survived the wreck of learning and science. · The most remarkable emigration, in modern times, is that of 500,000 Tour-Goths, from the shores of the Caspian to the Chinese frontiers. Nor did ever a government receive a greater insult, than that of Russia in the resolution of those emigrants to encounter so long and so difficult a journey, in order to throw themselves under the protection of a foreign prince, rather than submit to the insults of an unprincipled conquest.
But history presents no colonization, so agreeable to the imagination as that of Pennsylvania by the immortal Penn; whose enlightened philosophy, private and public difficulties, faith with the native Americans; the urbanity of his companions; their order, purity, and precision; present a combined picture, whether relating to manners or to circumstances, which throw into the shade the whole history of empires :--deformed, as it is, with every variety, arising out of sacrilege, robbery, treachery, assassination, and public murder ;-sanctioned by custom, dignified by law, and hallowed into glory.
The United States of America are chiefly indebted for their population, civilization, and consequent power, to the impolicy of European administrations : factions, civil wars, difficulties in procuring subsistence, or the hope of bettering their condition, having induced a great number of Swiss, German, French, Irish, Scotch, and English emigrants to quit their native soils, and seek in a distant country subsistence and repose.
One observation, however, in respect to colonies, it is very important to record. They are mere merchants: seeming to have no conception beyond the vulgar wants and passions of life. What have the colonists either of Spain, Portugal, France, or England, done for the imagination, or the judgment, of superior men ? Those settled in Africa, nothing ; in America, nothing; and in Asia, comparatively nothing ;—if we except a few translations, and a few treatises on local antiquities a. In Greece it was otherwise. Nor is it possible to contemplate, without the liveliest admiration, the gems both of history and of poetry, that the Greek colonists of Sicily, Doria, and Ionia, left for the instruction and delight of mankind. Scarcely a city of those countries, but has recommended itself to the gratitude of posterity! Homer, Theocritus, Herodotus ;-but the list were multitudinous.
Liberty came from the North; the sciences and the arts from Egypt, Greece, Arabia, and other parts of the East. These we have imported with safety; since we have had sufficient grace to perceive, that despotism was unworthy of importation. But as a drawback on these advantages, Europe owes some of its disorders to her intercourse with Asia. It is remarkable that in the year, which gave birth to Mahomet, the measles, the small-pox, and the hydrophobia, were first known in Arabia. The two former emigrated from Ethiopia. These disorders have subsequently been transplanted into Europe.
As Europe, in this particular, has suffered by an intercourse with the East,-Africa and the Pacific are under a similar disobligation to Europe. The Portuguese introduced the gonorrhoea and the elephantiasis into the Congo country:
• This was written in 1817.
and other Europeans left the small-pox and the lues in the South Sea Islands. The natives complain, that the Spaniards left them the swelled throat; Cook the intermittent fever; Vancouver the dysentery; and Bligh the scrofula. Europe has also introduced to them a new and more destructive method of making war.
The diffusion of knowledge, by creating a vibration of interests from one end of the globe to the other, has annihilated space ; by bringing countries, the most remote, into contact with each other. This has led to a juster equilibrium in respect to civilization. For commerce is one of the greatest and most profound of all instruments, for effecting the result Nature has instituted, by establishing a community of wants. The second instrument of civilization arises out of the greatest of all moral calamities—war. For savage countries and corrupt nations, as an elegant writer has remarked, gain essential and lasting advantages, by being conquered by a people, governed by wiser laws, and distinguished by more humane institutions than themselves. The effects of Roman conquests yielded, in point of interest to those who were conquered, only to the advantages, which have been the constant results of British conquests ;—whether in America, in Africa, or in Asia.
Such are the advantages arising from war, from commerce, and from colonization. But those, who emigrate, seldom cease to lament the country they have quitted ; and hence they are at all times ready to address that country in imagination, as a lover addresses the mistress he has left behind :
Where'er I go, whatever realms I see,
Still to my country turns with ceaseless pain,
PLEASURES OF CONTEMPLATION. But we have ventured on these subjects too widely and too long. Nature is so captivating; her methods so various ; her laws so mysterious ; her similitudes so beautiful; and her contrasts so magnificent : we are led so insensibly from plants to insects; from insects to fishes, birds, and quadrupeds ; thence to the subject of emigration ; and, lastly, tó the love of the country, which gave us birth, that though we have become enriched by the various transitions, we have become embarrassed also..
In drawing similitudes, and making contrasts, the mind, though spiritualized, as it were, by the contemplation, is able to look into Nature only in parts. Nature, as a whole, it has no power to approach. Men, in whom the energy of spontaneous ambition excites no appetite for the investigation of phenomena, are satisfied that effects cannot always be elicited from causes, and that causes cannot always be traced from results. And because Nature is stupendous in her works, and mysterious in her operations, they are unwilling, and indeed almost fearful, to exercise the powers, she has delegated. But they cannot always resist the majesty of their Creator! For no pleasures are so bland in their qualities, or so pure in their sources ; and none are there so worthy the vast capacities of the human mind. And though nothing is entirely certain, but that space is infinite, yet, as things present bear presumptive evidence to things unseen, the mind delights in the endeavour to trace the beauties, the harmonies, and the sublimities, of the material universe, not only up to Nature, but to “ Nature's God.”
When the waves break upon the distant shore with a wild, solemn, melancholy, yet delightful murmur ;—when we observe the regular succession of the seasons ;—the rising of the sun from behind rocks lifting their spires, as it were, to the clouds ;-when we behold meteors ; comets; planets; the blue vault; and the uniform reproduction of animal and vegetable life; we feel, that sublimity dwells in beauty, beauty in order, and order in sublimity. : An homage, at once pure and ardent, meditative and reflective, diffuses the cheek of manly virtue with delicious tears; and, turning with disgust and impatience from the cold spectacle of artificial life, light is beheld, where others see only mystery; clemency and benevolence are observed to proceed out of apparent cruelty ; truth springs even out of optical and mental delusions ; and out of apparently frigid commentaries are elicited the benefits of justice and wisdom. The INFINITE is every where, and speaks in all things. ca
* As our sensual enjoyments acquire a zest from a union with the mental, so each of them derives additional goût from those objects, which flatter the appetites of both. A fine day, therefore, as Sir William Temple has observed, is as much a sensual, as it is a mental enjoyment. “It is a banquet given by Heaven to earth.” It unites the character of luxury and temperance. · The Italians live in the air. Walking under piazzas ; sitting in porticos; and reclining under bowers, many of their domestic banquets are peculiarly agreeable a. How much more pleasure some of us derive from the simplest of collations, under the shade of a tree, than from the most luxurious banquet in a dining-room, every person of taste is ready to acknowledge. When we are enjoying the society of ladies, of a fine summer's evening, in a drawing-room, opening into a green-house, who will not confess, that the effects of their conversation are far more flattering to the nga sut 10 vutetaan
* Cur non sub alta vel platana, vel hac 01 97 Piu jacentes, &c. &c. ---Hor. Carm. lib. ii. 2. VOL. II.