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cation according to definitions. But the American youth is presumed io know all this, and be able to catch the thought conveyed by an English sentence-in fine, to be able to use practically the language before he attempts to study it as a science. Instead, therefore, of beginning with the Alphabet, and wasting his energies on technical terms and ambiguous words, he should be required to deal with thought as conveyed by sentences. Accordingly, this introduction to the Science of Language begins with a Sentence, properly constructed, and investigates its strui iure by developing the offices of the words which compose it; making the office rather than the form of a word, determine the class to which it belongs.
As an important auxiliary in the analysis of Sentences, a system of Diagrams has been invented and introduced in the work. It is not claimed for the Diagrams that they constitute any essential part of the Science of Language--nor do Geometrical Diagrams constitute such a part of the Science of Geometry; Maps, of Geography; or figures, of Arithmetic. Bui it will not be denied that these are of great service in the study of those branches. Experience has established their importance.
Let, then, the use of Diagrams, reduced as they are here to a complete system, be adopted in the analyses of Sentences, and it is believed that teachers will confess that their utility is as obvious in the science of Lan guage, as it is in the science of Magnitude; and for precisely the same reason, that an abstract truth is made tangible; the eye is permitted to assist the mind; the memory is relieved that the judgment may have full charter of all the mental powers.
Conscious that novelty, as such, should not bear sway in the investigations of Science, the Author has been careful, neither to depart from the ordinary method of presenting the Science, for the sake of novelty; nor, from dread of novelty, to reject manifest improvements. The old Nomenclature is retained, not because a better could not be proposed, but because the advantages to be gained would not compensate for the confusion necessarily consequent to such a change. But the terms purely technical have been introduced as a natural inference from facts previously deduced. Principles and Definitions are preceded by such Remarks as have fully established their propriety. The inductive method of arriving al truth has been followed throughout-with that it stands or falls. East BLOOMELELD. ACADEMY, }
THE ETYMOLOGICAL CHART.
(See page 110.) This Chart presents, at one view, the entire etymology of the English language. It is useful chiefly in reviews and in etymological parsing. The large edition of the Chart 44 inches diameter, may
be used more profitably, as, with it, the whole class may
follow the reciting pupil-all having their attention directed to the same thing, at the same time. In the absence of a large Chart, the small ones may be used—each student using his
It will be noticed, that the Chart does not give the definitions of the classes and modifications of words; but simply presents the principles of etymology; showing, for example,
That a “Sentence” consists of “ Principal Parts,” and may have " Adjuncts.” That the Principal Parts of a sentence must have a “Subject," a“Predicate," and (if Transitive) an“ Object.” That the Subject may be a “Word," a "Phrase,” or a "Sentence.” That if the Subject is a Word, it is a “Noun” or “Pronoun"-if a Noun, it is “Common” or “Proper"-if a Pronoun, it is “ Personal," " Relative," " Interrogative," or “ Adjective.” That the Noun or Pronoun must be of the “ Neuter," “Feminine,” or “Masculine” Gender-of the "First,” “Second,” or 16 Third” Person-of the " Singular” or “Plural" Number—and that it must be in the “ Nominative" Case.
If the Subject is a "Phrase,” it is a " Substantive" Phrase—and may be (in form) “Prepositional," " Participial," "Infinitive,” or “ Indepen. dent”-and may be " Transitive” or “ Intransitive."
If the Subject is a “Sentence," it is a “Substantive” Sentence--and may be “Simple” or “Compound,” « Transitive" or " Intransitive."
Thus, a comparison of the Chart with the General Principles on page 111, will readily suggest to the skilful teacher the proper method of using it in review.
The proper use of the Chart in Etymological parsing, is illustrated by “ Exercises,” p. 116.