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Pope should commence the office at the church of St. Andrew, and conclude it at that of his brother items! Peter. However soine very old copies of this prayer have been found with the names of other Saints after that of Andrew.
The great object of the prayer was, peace, that we may always be free from sin and secure from all disturbance," which are both concomitants of war. The celebrant in repeating this prayer signed him to self with the Patten which he held in his hand, and drilling kissed it as the emblem of peace and charity; for upon it that oblation had been made, which exhibited the union and peace of the congregation ; and to de now it was to be placed under the holy sacrament, whence we expect that peace which the world can not give. The prayer concluded in the usual way: ** Through Christ our Lord, who with thee in the in unity of the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth God, world without end-Amen."
In repeating the last words of this prayer, the celebrant perforins a ceremony which has subsisted from you the time of the institution by our Saviour. He breaks the sacrament over the chalice; formerly it was over the Patten, but it was about 1100 years ago re gulated to break it over the chalice, that any particles separating therefrom might be received into that sacred vessel; and in putting a small particle into the chalice the celebrant as usual concludes the prayer in a loud voice, “for ever and ever-- Amen:" and then as he puts the particle into the chalice, he thrice makes the sign of the cross therewith, wishing the congregation“ May the peace of the Lord always be with you :" to which the usual answer was given, “and with thy spirit.” Formerly upon this being said the hiss of peace was given through the congregation, in token of unity and charity, by the men to the men, and by the women to the women, who for this purpose sat at different sides of the church, Mention is inade of this by Tertullian and Other very uncient writers.
hand marity checo 1000
The mixing the host with the contents of the chalice
, is very ancient, indeed so much so, that we can this find no trace of its introduction ; but we find it al.
Fars customary-and on many occasions. First, bishops living at a distance, frequently sent each to
the other, in token of communion, a consecrated re fred host
, by a priest or deacon, and the person to whom
it was sent put it into his chalice, and took it therespedire fran at the next Mass that he celebrated. Second
15, it was customary in many churches to keep a portion of what had been consecrated at one mass to be consumed in the chalice at the next, to shew that the sacrifice, though continued on different days, was the same. Thirdly, what had been reserved for the sick was generally consumed in this manner. Fourthly, it was the custom in many churches where communion was given, under both kinds, to mix them in the chalice, and to give the communion therefrom ; and fifthly, there was from the commencement a powerful mystic reason for the praca tice. The death of Christ had been shewn by the mystic separation of the body and blood, his reanimation and resurrection were to be shewn by their mystic union, which took place in this manner. "Thus," writes Pope Innocent III. " the chalice represents the monument, whence the deacon, who is the angel of the church removes the pall, as the hearenly messenger removed the stone from the mouth of the sepulchre"_and bere Christ haying died for our sins, and offered himself for our iniquities, is now re-animated, and gives us that celestial food where the flesh which was dead, now vivi. fied by the spirit, is profitable to those who prove and try themselves.
It was on the day of his resurrection that Christ first addressed his apostles, in those memorable words, “ Peace be to you," and celebrating that re surrection, the celebrant prays that this peace may
istedet He bed
remain always with them, being derived from the blessed trinity through the cross of the Saviour.
He now prepares for communion, and first bowing, he thrice in a penitent manner, strikes his breast, ali bez calling upon “ the Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, to have mercy on bim, "_but on the third occasion to “grant him peace"-that peace which the world cannot give-and then bow. ing down before the altar, he prays for peace
and unity for the whole church.
In masses for the dead, we offer for those in pur. gatory, and hence instead of saying “have mercy on us"_
grant us peace"-the celebrant says " grant them rest"_" grant them eternal rest ;" and the prayer for the peace of the church is omitted, but the celebrant proceeds to read the two other prayers before communion, and then receives the holy sacra. ment.
In high Masses, after this prayer for peace, the deacon, who during its repetition has been on his knees at the celebrant's right hand, rises, and they both kiss the altar, the celebrant, as it were to receive the spirit of peace from Jesus Christ, the dea. con through respect, and after embracing each other the celebrant kisses the deacon, saying, “ Peace be with thee."
The deacon answers, “and with thy spirit;" and having made his reverence to the altar, gives the peace in like manner to the subdeacon in his place below; and they then come up to assist at the altar, the celebrant continuing his prayers for communion, which are so plain as to need no ex. position. In putting the particle into the chalice the cele
“ May this mixture and consecration of the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, be to us that receive it, eternal life.” The meaning of the word “consecration" in this place, has always been understood to be the patting of two holy things
together; not a blessing or separation for religious purposes-consecrare, quasi simul sacrare.
The Agnus Dei &c. " Lamb of God &c.” was ordered to be sung at the Mass, by Pope Sergius I, who came to the chair in 687. But the custom of saying it must have prevailed in many places previously to this, because we find very clear allusions thereto in works and liturgies of a much earlier date. St. John Chrysostom who lived 300 years before Sergius has this passage.
" It is not in vain ose palhat we make commemoration for the dead at the
sacred mysteries, or that we approach the divine Lamb who is there, and who takes away the sins of
the world, to beseech his mercy for them.” And edi ben the first general council of Nice in the year 325,
calls upon us « by faith to conceive and to know that on that holy table is placed that Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, and who is immolated in an unbloody manner by the Priests.” In the Mass of St. Severus, Patriarch of Alexandria, the words prescribed for the priest when he breaks the Sacrament, are, " Thou art the Lamb of God who takest
away or blottest out the sins of the world." In fact, the number of figures was so great, and the expressions upon which its introduction must have been founded, are so strong, that it is next to impossible that the prayer should not have been one of the first formed in the Church, and it appears in one of the ancient liturgies of St. Peter. It was probably a lamb that Abel sacrificed; it was a male lamb that Abraham substituted for Isaac; it was a lamb that was sacrificed in Egypt, and it tas instead of the Paschal lamb that the Eucharist was established; a lamb was the morning and evening sacrifice of the Jews ; and these were all figures of that Lainb, for whose arrival Isaias praytd. * Send forth, O Lord, the Lamb, liic ruler of the
the in achat
* Isaias xvi, 1.
earth, from Petra of the desert, to the mount of the daughter of Sion, and of whom John the Baptist Tap said * Behold the Lamb of God-Behold him who taketh away the sins of the world, and frequent mention is made of the Lamb in the Apocalypse.
The prayer for peace is found in some very old copies of the Sacramentaries, &c. The prayers
for communion were various, and in a great measure lest to the discretion of the celebrant, but those two now inserted, and ordered, are two of the most ancient forms that are known. After those prayers the celebrant pays again the tribute of his adoration, and rising, takes the host and says, “ I will take the heavenly bread, and call upon the name of the Lord," then striking his breast, he says thrice, “Lord I am not worthy that thou shouldst enter under my roof
, say but the word, and my soul shall be healed. This is a most ancient custom which is mentioned by Ter. tullian, by Origen, and many other early writers, and is founded upon the expressions of the centurion in the Gospel
The celebrant then communicates himself saying the appropriate prayers which are found in the order, and afterwards has wine poured into the chalice, with which he thoroughly clears it of any particles of the Sacrament which might remain therein, and afterwards has wine and water poured upon those fizi
, gers with which he has touched the Sacrament, and after cleansing them perfectly, he drinks this ablu. tion also from the Chalice, which is then wiped, and dried.
If communion were to be given, it was usually done after the celebrant had communicated himself, and then the choir sung some Psalms, as it is recorded in the Gospel that after they had sung an hymn when the Apostles were first fed with this divine banquet, they went out, and such was the cuso tom of the Jews after partaking of the Paschal lamb,
* John i. 29.