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tive singular of nouns terminating in s, is formed in the same manner, as righteousness' sake.”
From this I infer that, as the apostroplie in the latter expression denotes the absence of another s, omitted by reason of its causing too much of a hissing sound; so, in the former example, another s after the apostrophe is omitted for the same reason. Now I take leave to differ from this opinion, and beg a short space to endeavour to fortify my position.
The English language is the form which, in the lapse of time, the Anglo-Saxon has finally assumed by the gradual variation and rejection of its inflexions. In the substantive, the only case retained was the genitive in is or es. In the plural, all the inflexions were ultimately dropped, the three cases (improperly so called), being written in the same way as the nominative plural, which was generally the same as the genitive singular.
To give a few instances :
Tha halige fant water is gelic odhrum waeterum (dat.) ac dhaes halgan gastes miht dhurh sacerda (gen.) bletsunge. (The holy font water is like (to) other waters; but the Holy Ghost's power, through the priests' blessing.)- Alfric's Paschal Homily.
And thei weren glad in the werkis of her hondis.-Wycliffe.
The princes watche ought to defend the poor mannes house, his labour the subjectes ease **.—John Pagnet (Bishop of Winchester.)
And sing of knights and ladies gentle deeds.-Spenser.
Think not the erectness of man's stature a sufficient distinction of him from brutes.-Stillingfleet.
Weigh the men's wits against the ladies hairs.—Pope.
These examples are taken at random, and fairly represent the ordinary use of the writers from whom they are quoted, though many instan ces of the s' may be observed, especially in those authors who are nearer to our own times. From these instances, then, I think we are fairly entitled to conclude, that the apostrophe in the singular is a mark of elision denoting the omission of the e or i of the Saxon genitive ; and that this is the only case (properly so called), in our present English nouns. The possessive plural in our early English or Saxon, as may be seen in the first quotation above, ended in a or ena ; and, after the final rejection of the a of the genitive and um of the dative, was written
in the same manner as the nominative. The general use of the apos-
' slippers." Earlier writers would have written simply," the ladies slippers.” There is no example of another s, es, or is, being added to the nominative plural to form the possessive case (except in two da three irregular nouns.) The apostrophe, then, in the above instance, is used merely as a grammatical mark to designate the case; and, therefore, it is absurd to suppose that the proper, the strict, full, and grapmatical force and pronunciation of the expression, is—" the ladies-es slippers."
These opinions are more strongly fortified by the authority of two distinguished men. Hickes, in his Thesaurus, speaking of the Saxon genitive in es, observes, “ Inde in nostratium sermone nominum seha stantivorum genitivus singularis, et nominativus pluralis exeunt in es vel s." Dr. Johnson, in his “ Grammar of the English Tongue,"prefired to his Dictionary, makes the following remarks :-" This termination of the noun (the possessive singular), seems to constitute a real genitive indicating possession. It is derived to us from those who declined smith :-Gen. smithes, of a smith; Plur. smithes, or smithas; and so in two other of their seven declensions.” “Plurals ending in s," he farther observes, “ have no genitive.” ** Dr. Wallis thinks the Lord' house, may be said for the house of Lords ; but such phrases are not not in use; and surely an English ear rebels against them. Besides that the mark of elision is improper, for “ in the Lords house, nothing is car
If you have space for this I would wish to have your opinion, or that of some of your able correspondents on the point.
PAILALETHES. .41xsick, Feb. 14, 1845.
Educational Essays, by J. Skinner, Proprietor of the Winchmore Hill
Academy, near Edmontor, Middlesex. Svo. pp. 104. Whittaker. Many of our readers will remember with interest a series of papers which appeared in the earlier numbers of this Journal, with the signature of J. Skinner ; some of which, especially one on the Means of Ex: citing Diligence in Study, gave rise to an animated discussion; and they will not be sorry to hear that the author, at the instance of per sons having a deep in in the subject,—the parents and friends or his pupils, -hasi
hem, with the Hon of one or two other papers, un
Practical On Servations on Var
and Physical Training of Youth in Schools. At the same time he announces his intention, should the anticipations of its promoters be realized, of following up the volume with two others. Nearly the whole of the present volume having appeared originally in our own pages, we scarcely like to say what we think of it; there can, however, be no harm in our stating, that these essays are the result of long and thoughtful experience, the greater part of the author's life (more than twenty years) having been devoted to the benefit of the rising generation, in a sphere, too, perhaps best adapted for the gaining of sound experience—the principalship of a select boarding school. It is something to say in favour of this unpretending volume, that it contains nothing which has not been tested by experience and sanctioned by success. The subjects of the essays are as follows:--(1.) On First Impressions. (2.) On the Order in which the Mental Faculties unfold themselves. (3.) On the Early Formation of Studious Habits. (4.) On Facilitating Youthful Studies. (5.) On the Means of Exciting Diligence in Study. (6.) On Familiar Lectures in connection with the Interrogative System of Instruction. (7.) On Discrimination of Character. (8.) Hints for a Practical Method of Teaching Elocution in Schools. (9.) On the Means of Promoting Quietness in Schools. Also an Appendix, containing two papers in Defence of Emulation as a means of exciting Diligence in Study. We look forward with considerable interest to the appearance of the other two volumes promised in the preface, one on the Moral, and the other on the Physical Education of Youth.
Thirty Chants, Selected from the Best Composers ; Arranged for Four
Voices, with an Accompaniment for the Organ and Pianoforte. Impe
rial 8vo. Hamilton & Co. Any effort, however humble, that tends to the improvement of congregational singing, is worthy of encouragement. There are, however, special reasons for recommending this new selection to the favourable notice of our readers :
(1.) It is a selection, and from the best composers, too, evidently made with the single aim of promoting congregational chanting : there is not one original, scarcely one very modern chant in the volume.
(2.) It is cheap in the right sense of the word. There is nothing poor about it. In addition to the thirty chants arranged in score with an accompaniment, it contains the canticles of the Church of England ; and all for one shilling. The profits, too, will be applied to a charitable purpose.
(3.) Great care and skill have been employed in the distribution of the words of the canticles, the syllables being displayed in a manner plain enough for a child to understand at a glance. There is a short but excellent preface, explaining the principle upon which this is done, blending the syllabic and accented systems, so as to avoid the extremes
We shall be pardoned for borrowing the following quotation from the Rev. J. Jebb’s Choral Service of the Church of England :
“As a general rule, the melody in the first part ought to be upon the three last syllables ; in the second part upon
the last five ; as in this verse :
“ Praise Him, | Sun ·and | Moon : || Praise Him, | all · ye | stars - and · light. I By a strict adherence to the syllabic system, which is to give the last three or five notes to the last three or five syllables, whatever may be their prosodial value or importance, the rhythm of the words, and what is far worse, the parallelism is in many cases altogether lost. On the other hand, the accented systems, (by which the division is altogether regulated by accent, the last notes being assigned to the last three or five accented syllables), may be carried too far; and by crowding * many words into one note, the solemnity of the chant is impaired, and the harshness of a language, already abounding in so many and close vowels, is exaggerated.
“ The proper method lies between these two extremes. Due atten tion being paid to the sense and rhythm, regard at the same time should be had to the more deliberate and solemn enunciation of certain splables, which, from the proneness to abbreviate incident to all language we have been taught to slur over, to the great detriment of melody."
(4.) A peculiar recommendation of this selection, is the original and ingenious way in which the words of each canticle, being printed each side of the leaf at the bottom of the page, and all but detached from the upper part, are made to fall under the notes of the music to which they are to be sung; the upright
lines, dividing the words
, correta ponding with the bars of the music, on whichever side of the leaf the chant selected may be printed.
Experimental Education. By the Author of "A Sponsor's Gift," he.
12mo. pp. 312. Hatchard. the "advertisement,” which begins with these words : -This booki Our attention was first drawn to this volume by one or two remarks in intended for parents and teachers only, is to be kept from children, som whom it might prove injurious. When the writer points out the faults of parents, she wishes to assure them, that it is in a faithful and tender spirit; not so much to blame them, as to show the effects resulting from inexperience. The writer has not consulted any other work en education, but has merely recorded her own experience." We began to hope that we had met with a genuine book, and we have not been disappointed. Making every allowance for low churchmanship
, the work is well worthy the attention of young mothers, and others who have the bringing up of children. The author has studied her subject well, and evidently had much experience in the matter. Her method of managing her young charge is very sensible; she evinces great per netration into character, and deals largely in interesting anecdotes di children who have been entrusted to her care. She is no adrocate for forcing yours
for instance, child to re
dot begin to teach *
g that she has inft riably found, that children who have been taught to read earlier are no forwarder at seven. The tact she displays in detecting faults, and the variety of methods she adopts in correcting them, show great insight into the human heart. Many valuable hints are scattered up and down the volume.
Ertracts from Charges.
NO CLERGYMAN CAN DO HIS DUTY EFFICIENTLY, WHO DOES NOT CATECHISE.
There are three forms in which we must speak to our people :-in Exhortation in Admonition-and in Instruction. The pulpit is the scene of the first of these ; the houses of our parishioners must witness the second ; and the parish school, particularly the Sunday school, and the reading desk of our churches should be the place in which we exhibit proofs of the third. To this last topic I now turn.
To those who are acquainted with the present state of the kingdom, there can be little doubt that ignorance is one great source of irreligion : not that mere intelligence will make men christians, but that many persons do not believe in Christianity, because they are practically unacquainted with it, and many more are alienated from the communion of our Church, because they have never imbibed a sufficient stock of knowledge to understand the real nature of those questions on which others differ from us. Therefore the parish school should be the frequent scene of the clergyman's labour. He should try to see that the children really understand that which they prosessedly learn, and to give a christian tone to everything which is there taught them. I say nothing of the school being the best entrance into the house of every parent; but if the children of the parish have grown up with the habit of regarding their clergyman as an enlightened instructor, and a friendly governor, it will tend more than anything to place him in that position in which he is likely to occupy his proper place among his people. I need not dwell on the good which his visits ought to do the children. We may know many things, and not be the wiser for it, and this is often the case with that species of mechanical instruction which is communicated by unenlightened teachers, who can impart a good deal of information on some branches of knowledge, without opening the minds of the scholars by the process. But if these same scholars were from time to time questioned by an intelligent visiter, the less efficient teacher would perceive his own deficiency, and the children would obtain a key to open stores of mechanical information, which would thus be converted into true knowledge. But it is to the Sunday school* and catechising that I would more directly turn your attention. By catechising, I mean the public teaching in the church, before those of the congregation who desire to listen. The canons and rubric direct that this shall be done after the second lesson in evening service. But the circumstances of the parish, or a change in the habits of the people may render an alteration in the time at which it is performed, advisable; and as in such a question each clergyman ought to be a better judge of the propriety of selecting one time or the other, I leave it to your discretion.—They who neglect to catechise publicly, in connection with the Sunday school, not only omit a most eflicient means of doing good, but I must say that they obey neither the law of the land, nor of the church ; and after my frequent and earnest requests on this
Many observations with regard to the management of a Sunday school will be found in a letter on that subject, which I wrote to Mr. Howard, at his request, and which I have printed in the Appendix.