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Entered according to the act of congress, in the year 1837, by James Kay, Jun. & Brother, in the
clerk's office of the district court of the United States in and for the eastern district of Pennsyl-
vania. -

Philadelphia:
Printed by James Kay, Jun. & Brother,
122 Chestnut Street.

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THE original MS. of the Principles of Geology was delivered to the publisher in 1827; but the greater portion of it was then in an unfinished state, the chapters on the early history of Geology, and those on “the Inorganic Causes of Change,” being the only ones then nearly ready for the press. The Work was at that time intended to form two octavo volumes, which were to appear in the course of the year following. Their publication, however, was delayed by various geological tours which I made in the years 1828, 1829, 1830, and 1831, in France, Italy, Sicily, and Germany. The following were the dates when the successive volumes and editions finally appeared:—

1st Wol. in octavo . - - - . Jan. 1830.
2d Wol. do. - - - - . Jan. 1832.
1st Vol. 2d edition in octavo - - - 1832.
2d Vol. 2d edition do. . - - . Jan. 1833.
3d Vol. 1st edition do. . - - . May 1833.
New edition (called the 3d) of the whole work
in 4 vols. 12mo. . - - - . May 1834.
4th edition, 4 vols. 12mo. . - - . June 1835.

I have acknowledged on former occasions the valuable assistance afforded me by several of my friends in the execution of this work, and have especially returned my thanks to Mr. Murchison, Mr. Broderip, Dr. Fitton, Mr. Lonsdale, and Capt. Basil Hall, for their zealous co-operation, and for the corrections and improvements which were adopted at their suggestion.

In the Prefaces to the third and fourth editions, I gave
lists of the places where new matter had been introduced,
or where opinions expressed in former editions had been
modified or renounced. I shall now again subjoin a simi-
lar list for the sake of those readers who have already
studied this work, but who may wish to refer at once to
the additions and corrections now made for the first time.

List of the principal Alterations and Additions in the Fifth
Edition, as compared to the Fourth.

Account of Submarine Forests, transferred to this place from Chap-

ter xvi. - - - - - - - - 140

Loess of the Valley of the Rhine, the whole recast with additions . 289
Slope of recent strata in the modern delta of the Kander in Lake of Thun - - - - - - - 312 Crag of Norfolk and Suffolk, and overlying deposit. The whole of this chapter recast - - - 313 M. Dufrénoy on the tertiary strata of the basin of the Gironde 344, 345, 346 Note on the latest opinions respecting an alleged difference of level between the Caspian and Black Seas - - 392,393 Professor Sedwick and Sir J. Herschel on the causes of the cleavage of rocks 486, 487 Nen, Wood Cuts in the Fifth Edition. WOLUME I. Page Page 1. Pleurotoma rotata 100 8. Y Diagrams to illustrate (368 2. Map of Siberia - ... 104 o the elevation-crater { 368 3. Iceberg seen off Cape of 10. theory 371 Good Hope 120 11. Map of Chili . - . 376 4. Shakspeare's Cliff 261 12. Map of Harbour of Con5. Section of Jorullo 346 ception - 378 6. Diagrams to illustrate the 13. Map of Calabria 392 elevation-crater theory 358 14. Map of Sweden and the 7. Plan of the Isle of Palma . 359 Baltic - 440 VOLUME II. 15. Meandrina labyrinthica 169 33. T. carnea . 435 16. Astrea dipsacea 169 34. Ostrea vesicularis 436 17. Madrepora muricata 170 35. Bellemnites mucronatus 436 18. Caryophyllia fastigiata 170 36. Baculites Faujasii 436 19. Porites clavaria 170 37. B. anceps 436 20. Oculina hirtella 170 38. Ammonites rhotomagensis 436 21. View of worn limestone 39. Beloptera belemnitoidea 437 columns in Niapisca island 284 40. Hippurites bioculata and H. 22. Succinea elongata 291 radiosa . 437 23. Pupa muscorum 291 41. Terebratula lyra 438 24. Helix plebeium - . 291 42. Pecten 5-costatus 438 25. Catillus Cuvieri 435 43. Turrilites costatus . . 438 26. Crania Parisiensis 435 44. Cypris spinigera - 441 27. Plagiostoma Hoperi . 435 45. C. Waldensis 441 28. P. Spinosum - 435 46. C. tuberculata . 441 29. Terebratula Defrancii 435 47. Gryphaea virgula 445 30. Ostrea carinata 435 48. Ostrea deltoidea 445 31. Terebratula octoplicata 435 49. Section of Nerinoea hiero32. T. pumilus 435 glyphica 445

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Page Page 50. Cast of Diceras arietina . 446 57. Acrodus nobilis . . . .447 51. Terebratula spinosa . . 446 58. Avicula socialis - . 448 52. Pholadomya fidicula . . 446 59. Orthoceras laterale . . 450 53. Belemnites hastatus . . 446 60. O. giganteum . - . 450 54. Gryphaea incurva . . 447 61. Calymene Blumenbachii . 452 55. Nautilus truncatus . . 447 62. Asaphus Buchii - . 452 56. Hybodus reticulatus . . 447

A general view or summary of the contents of this work cannot fail to be useful in pointing out more clearly the course of reasoning adopted, and the order in which the different subjects are treated. I therefore hope that the student, by referring from time to time to the subjoined summary, will more easily understand the plan of the whole, and the bearing on geology of several digressions which I have introduced on collateral topics, especially on certain departments of natural history.

GENERAL VIEW OR SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY. a

After some observations on the nature and objects of Geology (Chap. I. Vol. I.), a sketch is given of the progress of opinion in this science, from the times of the earliest known writers to our own days (Chaps. II. III. IV.). From this historical sketch it appears that the first cultivators of geology indulged in many visionary theories, the errors of which are referred chiefly to one common source,—a prevailing persuasion that the ancient causes of change were different, both as regards their nature and energy, to those now in action. In other words, it was supposed that the causes by which the crust of the earth, and its habitable surface, were modified at remote periods, were almost entirely distinct from the operations by which the surface and crust of the planet are now undergoing a gradual change.

The prejudices which led to this assumed discordance

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